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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is anon-invasive stimulation technique of the brain that usesmagnetic fields to generate electrical currents in the brain. TMS is used to assess and modulate brain activity, and has been used to treat a variety of neurological disorders.

TMS uses aelectromagnetic induction coil which is placed on the patient's scalp. When a pulse of current is applied to the coil, a magnetic field is generated that penetrates the brain and generates an electrical current in nearby neurons. The direction and intensity of the electrical current depend on the orientation and frequency of the magnetic field, and can be adjusted to modulate brain activity selectively.

TMS is used in differentmodalities, including single-pulse TMS (sTMS), repetitive TMS (rTMS), and theta burst TMS (TBS). sTMS is primarily used to map brain activity and to evaluatecortical excitability. rTMS and TBS are used tomodulate brain activity.

In terms ofsecurity, TMS is generally safe and well tolerated. The most common side effects are headache and discomfort at the stimulation site. However, in rare cases seizures may occur, so TMS should be performed bytrained professionals and in a suitable environment.

 

In summary, TMS is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique used to evaluate and modulate brain activity in different neurological disorders. 

Diseases where TMS has been applied:

  • major depression

  • Bipolar disorder

  • Anxiety disorders (such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder)

  • Schizophrenia

  • Parkinson's disease

  • Neuropathic pain

  • Tourette syndrome

  • Autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

  • stroke

  • traumatic brain injury

  • Eating disorders (such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa)

  • Addictions (for example, tobacco addiction, alcohol addiction)

It should be noted that this list is not exhaustive and that TMS and tDCS are being researched and developed to treat an even broader range of neurological disorders.

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